First image of a black hole and its event horizon in Messier 87 (April 10 2019)


 Breakthrough: FIRST IMAGE OF A BLACK HOLE AND ITS EVENT HORIZON (in Messier87, April 10 2019)
As scientists know, most “active” galaxies house “supermassive black holes” right in their centers, and thought to be their gravitational engines; but up to now black holes had only been detected indirectly, sometimes by the curving of the light of a galaxy (reaching us) when a black hole passes in front of it -- and creating an apparent ring or gravitational lensing --, or by the jets they emit, mostly gamma rays.


On April 10, 2019, was published the first image of a supermassive black hole surrounded by its event horizon, the one set at the center of Messier 87, a large elliptical galaxy in the constellation of Virgo (part of our neighboring Virgo Galaxy Cluster). The ring shape on this image is “the bright emissions from the hot gasses immediately surrounding the colossal maw of a supermassive black hole’s event horizon” explains the Perimeter article.*  
This supermassive black hole has a mass of 6.5 billion Suns, is ½ light-day across, and is 55-million light-years away. To give an idea of its gigantism, our own supermassive black hole in the center of our galaxy the Milky Way -- called Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A* for short – is 2.6 million solar masses, thus about 2500 times less massive.


(see image: Sagittarius A*, image taken with NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Ellipses indicate light echoes. Full-field is 12.5 arcmin across.)

It took almost two decades to create the EHT - the Event Horizon Telescope -  a network of radio telescopes around the world that creates an Earth-sized virtual telescope; EHT uses Interferometry to combine images taken from widely distant observatories distributed all over earth, to gain a higher resolution picture.

Avery Broderick (professor at the University of Waterloo, associate faculty member at Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Cambridge, UK), is one of the key scientists and theorists of the project. The University of Waterloo’s News release, said about these black holes, referring to him,  This first image is undeniable proof of their existence and is a robust test of general relativity in the most extreme gravitational environment known, added Broderick. ‘A black hole is a gravitational feature that comes right out of Einstein’s theory of general relativity, first described over a century ago and implicated – but never proven – to exist. Until now.’” (https://uwaterloo.ca/news/news/first-image-black-hole-captured) Broderick disclosed that their next target was to be our own supermassive black hole, Sgr A*,  as well as tracking the dynamics of these two.

“We now have exceptionally strong evidence for the link between supermassive black holes and the centres of active galaxies – this is how black holes shape our universe on galactic scales,” said EHT project director Sheperd S. Doeleman.

* See https://insidetheperimeter.ca/black-hole-breakthrough-astronomers-release-landmark-image/

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Discovery of EM anomalies in Great Pyramid


New Scientific discoveries about the Great Pyramid of Giza shows electro-magnetic fields and anomalies, (using thermal scanning, Muons cosmic particles, and multipole analysis.)
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-6008131/Great-Pyramid-Giza-focus-electromagnetic-energy-hidden-chambers.html
  The Great Pyramid, also known as Khufu's Pyramid, is the sole survivor 
of the ancient Seven Wonders of the World
For more than 4,500 years, Egypt's pyramids have kept their secrets hidden deep within the labyrinth of passages and chambers that lie inside their towering stone structures.
But the long-running row over whether the Great Pyramid of Giza is hiding a network of previously undiscovered tunnels behind its stone walls has now been answered. The researchers confirmed the find using cosmic particles known as muons to scan the Great Pyramid of Giza. They used the scans to create maps to reveal the internal structure of the 479 feet (146m) high pyramid.
Last year thermal scanning identified a major anomaly in the Great Pyramid, the largest and oldest of the pyramids at Giza and one of the seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Those scans identified three adjacent stones at its base which registered higher temperatures than others. Those scans identified three adjacent stones at its base which registered higher temperatures than others. This led to theories that they may be hiding a secret chamber that had yet to be discovered.

Scientists discover Great Pyramid of Giza can focus electromagnetic energy through its hidden chambers

  • New analysis shows pyramid concentrates electromagnetic energy in chambers
  • This includes two chambers inside, and a third unfinished one beneath the base
  • Scientists say breakthrough could lead to more efficient nanoparticle designs
The remarkable electromagnetic properties of the Great Pyramid of Giza could soon inspire nanoparticle designs for highly-efficient sensors and solar cells.
Scientists have discovered the famous pyramid concentrates electric and magnetic energy into its internal chambers and below its base, creating pockets of higher energy. If this concentrating effect is able to be recreated on a nanoscale size, it could lead to a wave of new, more efficient sensors and solar cells, the researchers claim.
While the 481-foot pyramid built thousands of years ago for Pharaoh Khufu has long drawn intrigue for its purported mythical qualities, the study is among a growing body of research attempting to finally get to the bottom of its physical properties. 

Scientists have found that the famous Great Pyramid of Giza can concentrate electric and magnetic energy in its chambers and below its base, giving rise to distinct pockets of higher energy

‘Egyptian pyramids have always attracted great attention,’ says Dr Andrey Evlyukhin, scientific supervisor and coordinator of the research. ‘We as scientists were interested in them as well, so we decided to look at the Great Pyramid as a particle dissipating radio waves resonantly.’ The international research team looked into the relationship between the shape of the Great Pyramid of Giza and its ability to focus electromagnetic energy.
To do this, the team led by ITMO University in Saint Petersburg, Russia, created a model of the pyramid, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, to accurately measure it electromagnetic response. The researchers used the model to see how wave energy is scattered or absorbed by the pyramid. They tested the interactions with waves of resonant length, ranging from 200 to 600 metres (656ft to 1,968ft).    
Given the lack of reliable information about the pyramid’s properties, however, the team says they had to fill in the blanks for some factors. ‘We had to use some assumptions,’ Evlyukhin admitted. ‘For example, we assumed that there are no unknown cavities inside, and the building material with the properties of an ordinary limestone is evenly distributed in and out of the pyramid.  ‘With these assumptions made, we obtained interesting results that can find important practical applications.’
Scientists used multipole analysis – a method widely-used in physics to study the interaction between a complex object and electromagnetic field – to reveal how the pyramid concentrates electromagnetic energy into in its underground chambers. This includes the two chambers believed to have contained the remains of Pharaoh Khufu and his wife, as well as the third unfinished chamber buried beneath the base.


A multipole analysis shows the pyramid concentrates electromagnetic energy in its hidden chambers. The distributions of electric (a)–(e) and magnetic (f)–(j) field magnitude in the Pyramid and its supporting substrate is shown above.

The Ancient Egyptians that built the pyramids more than 4,400 years ago were not aware of this quirk of design. However, researchers now believe the relationship between the design of the pyramid and its ability to focus wave energy through to its core could play a hugely-important for nanoparticle research in the future. When considering the pyramid on a substrate – such as the limestone plateau – the researchers say it focuses the energy through the empty spaces to the substrate. ‘In the case of the Pyramid on the substrate, at the shorter wavelengths, the electromagnetic energy accumulates in the chambers providing local spectral maxima for electric and magnetic fields,’ the researchers wrote in the study.
‘It is shown that basically the Pyramid scatters the electromagnetic waves and focuses them in to the substrate region.’
A multipole analysis shows the pyramid concentrates electromagnetic energy in its hidden chambers. Distributions of electric (top row) and magnetic (bottom row) field magnitudes in the free space are shown.

While the 481-foot pyramid built thousands of years ago for Pharaoh Khufu has long drawn intrigue for its purported mythical qualities, the study is among a growing body of research attempting to finally get to the bottom of its physical properties
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Avoiding hothouse scenario asks for fundamental re-adjustment of our relationship with the planet

Re-adjusting our relationship with the planet  

An alarming new study* shows that cutting greenhouse gases is not enough:  there are risks of a 'Hothouse Earth' even if CO2 emissions are slashed.
Says co-author Katherine Richardson from the University of Copenhagen: “So not only are we going to have to stop burning fossil fuels by the middle of this century, we are going to have to get very busy with planting trees, protecting forests, working out how to block the Sun's rays and developing machines to suck carbon out of the air.
The authors conclude that a total re-orientation of human values, equity, behaviour and technologies is required. We must all become stewards of the Earth.
This was also Naomi Klein’s understanding, in her ground-breaking book about the Climate Change data: This Changes Everything – a book that is a beacon for any one of us willing to live on a beautiful and safe planet, and protect us humans as well for times to come. 
 Global map of potential tipping cascades. The individual tipping elements are color-coded according to estimatd thresholds in global average surface temperature (tipping points; 18,43). Arrows show the potential interactions among the tipping elements, based on expert elicitation, which could generate cascades. Note that although the risk for tipping (loss of) the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is proposed at >5 degrees Celsius, some marine-based sectors in East Antarctica may be vulnerable at lower temperatures.

Climate change: 

'Hothouse Earth' risks  even if CO2 emissions slashed

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-45084144
Researchers believe we could soon cross a threshold leading to boiling hot temperatures and towering seas in the centuries to come. Even if countries succeed in meeting their CO2 targets, we could still lurch on to this "irreversible pathway." Their study shows (see ref. * below) it could happen if global temperatures rise by 2C.
An international team of climate researchers, writing in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), says the warming expected in the next few decades could turn some of the Earth's natural forces - that currently protect us - into our enemies.
Each year the Earth's forests, oceans and land soak up about 4.5 billion tonnes of carbon that would otherwise end up in our atmosphere adding to temperatures. But as the world experiences warming, these carbon sinks could become sources of carbon and make the problems of climate change significantly worse.
So whether it is the permafrost in northern latitudes that now holds millions of tonnes of warming gases, or the Amazon rainforest, the fear is that the closer we get to 2 degrees of warming above pre-industrial levels, the greater the chances that these natural allies will spew out more carbon than they currently now take in.
Back in 2015, governments of the world committed themselves to keeping temperature rises well below 2 degrees, and to strive to keep them under 1.5. According to the authors, the current plans to cut carbon may not be enough if their analysis is correct.
"What we are saying is that when we reach 2 degrees of warming, we may be at a point where we hand over the control mechanism to Planet Earth herself," co-author Prof Johan Rockström, from the Stockholm Resilience Centre, told BBC News.
"We are the ones in control right now, but once we go past 2 degrees, we see that the Earth system tips over from being a friend to a foe. We totally hand over our fate to an Earth system that starts rolling out of equilibrium."
Currently, global temperatures have risen about 1 degree above pre-industrial levels and they are rising by around 0.17C per decade.
In their new study the authors looked at 10 natural systems, which they term "feedback processes". Right now, these help humanity to avoid the worst impacts of carbon and temperature rises, and include forests, Arctic sea-ice, and methane hydrates on the ocean floor.
The worry is that if one of these systems tips over and starts pushing large amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere, the rest could follow like a row of dominoes.

What exactly is a Hothouse Earth scenario?

In short, it's not good. According to the research paper, crossing into a Hothouse Earth period would see a higher global temperature than at any time in the past 1.2 million years.
The climate might stabilise with 4-5 degrees C of warming above the pre-industrial age. Thanks to the melting of ice sheets, the seas could be 10-60 metres higher than now. Essentially, this would mean that some parts of the Earth would become uninhabitable. The impacts would be "massive, sometimes abrupt and undoubtedly disruptive," say the authors.
The only upside, if you can call it that, is that the worst impacts may not be felt for a century or two. The downside is that we wouldn't really be able to do anything about it, once it starts.

Are the current heatwaves in the UK and Europe evidence of a Hothouse Earth?

The authors say the extreme weather events we are seeing right now around the world cannot be immediately associated with the risk of passing 2 degrees C.
However, they argue that it may be evidence that the Earth is more sensitive to warming than previously thought.
"One should learn from these extreme events and take these as a piece of evidence that we should be even more cautious," said Prof Rockström.
"It may support the conclusion that if this can happen at one degree, then we should at least not be surprised or too dismissive of conclusions that things can happen more abruptly than we previously thought."

Surely we've known about these risks before?

What these authors are saying is that up to now, we've underestimated the power and sensitivity of natural systems.
People have been thinking that climate change would be a global emergency for everyone if temperatures rose 3-4 degrees by the end of this century.
But this paper argues that beyond 2 degrees, there is a significant risk of turning natural systems - that presently help keep temperatures down - into massive sources of carbon that would put us on an "irreversible pathway" to a world that is 4-5 degrees warmer than before the industrial revolution.

Any good news here at all?

Surprisingly, yes!
We can avoid the hothouse scenario but it's going to take a fundamental re-adjustment of our relationship with the planet.
"Climate and other global changes show us that we humans are impacting the Earth system at the global level. This means that we as a global community can also manage our relationship with the system to influence future planetary conditions.
"This study identifies some of the levers that can be used to do so," says co-author Katherine Richardson from the University of Copenhagen.
So not only are we going to have to stop burning fossil fuels by the middle of this century, we are going to have to get very busy with planting trees, protecting forests, working out how to block the Sun's rays and developing machines to suck carbon out of the air.
Carbon Engineering: Removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, as in this model, will be necessary, say the authors 


The authors say a total re-orientation of human values, equity, behaviour and technologies is required. We must all become stewards of the Earth.

What do other scientists say?

Some say the authors of this paper are too extreme. Many others say their conclusions are sound.
"As a result of human impacts on climate, the new paper argues that we've gone beyond any chance of the Earth cooling 'of its own accord'," said Dr Phil Williamson from the University of East Anglia, UK.
"Together these effects could add an extra half a degree Celsius by the end of the century to the warming that we are directly responsible for ‒ thereby crossing thresholds and tipping points that seem likely to occur around 2 degrees C, and committing the planet to irreversible further change, as Hothouse Earth."
Others are concerned that the authors' faith in humanity to grasp the serious nature of the problem is misplaced.
"Given the evidence of human history, this would seem a naive hope," said Prof Chris Rapley, from University College London.
"At a time of the widespread rise of right-wing populism, with its associated rejection of the messages of those perceived as 'cosmopolitan elites' and specific denial of climate change as an issue, the likelihood that the combination of factors necessary to allow humanity to navigate the planet to an acceptable 'intermediate state' must surely be close to zero."
 http://www.stockholmresilience.org/research/research-news/2018-08-06-planet-at-risk-of-heading-towards-hothouse-earth-state.html
Steffen, W., Rockström, J., Richardson, K., et al. (2018) Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1810141115
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